<!DOCTYPE html PUBLIC "-//W3C//DTD XHTML 1.0 Strict//EN" "http://www.w3.org/TR/xhtml1/DTD/xhtml1-strict.dtd"> <html xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1999/xhtml" lang="en" xml:lang="en"> <head> <link rel="stylesheet" href="styletefl.css" /> </head> <body text="#000000" link="#000080" vlink="#000000" bgcolor="#f1f1f1"> <table border=0 cellspacing=1 cellpadding=9 width=630> <td width="25%" valign="top" bgcolor="#008000"> <a href="index.html"><b><p align="center"><font color="#ffffff">HOME</font></b></a></td> <td width="25%" valign="top" bgcolor="#ff0000"> <a href="teflindex.htm"><b><p align="center"><font color="#ffffff">TEACHING</font></b></a></td> <td width="25%" valign="top" bgcolor="#0000ff"> <a href="phono.html"><b><p align="center"><font color="#ffffff">PRONUNCIATION</font></b></a></td> <td width="25%" valign="top" bgcolor="#EE3E80"> <a href="links.html"><b><p align="center"><font color="#ffffff">LINKS</font></b></a></td> </tr> </table> <h1>Consonant Clusters index</h1> <hr> <h2> Ted Power 2007-16</font><font color="#ffffff">---------</font>Introduction</h2> <p>When there are three or more consonants together, native speakers do not always produce as many consonant sounds. For example, the final consonant cluster in the word "fifths" is usually reduced to the last two consonant phonemes. Good pronunciation materials need to include practice of elision [missing phonemes out] and <a href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Assimilation_%28linguistics%29">assimilation</a> [a change in the quality of the phoneme - perhaps to a different phoneme altogether!].</p> <p>These word lists practise <b>final consonant clusters</b>, since lists of <b>initial consonant clusters</b> can easily be found in a dictionary, and consonant strings at the beginnings of words generally cause fewer difficulties.</p> <h2>Full word lists:</h2> <p>Eeach link is a separate page)<font color="#ffffff">-------</font><b>for consonant clusters beginning with:</b></p> <table border=0 cellspacing=0 cellpadding=9 width=710> <tr> <td width="8%" valign="top" colspan=2 bgcolor="#ffffff"> <a href="clusters01m.html">/ m /</a></td> <td width="8%" valign="top" bgcolor="#ffffff"> <a href="clusters02p.html">/ p /</a></td> <td width="8%" valign="top" bgcolor="#ffffff"> <a href="clusters03b.html">/ b /</a></td> <td width="8%" valign="top" colspan=2 bgcolor="#ffffff"> <a href="clusters04f.html">/ f /</a></td> <td width="8%" valign="top" bgcolor="#ffffff"> <a href="clusters05v.html">/ v /</a></td> <td width="8%" valign="top" bgcolor="#ffffff"> <a href="clusters06thvl.html">/ &#952; /</a></td> <td width="8%" valign="top" bgcolor="#ffffff"> <a href="clusters07thvd.html">/ &#240; /</a></td> <td width="8%" valign="top" bgcolor="#ffffff"> <a href="clusters08n.html">/ n /</a></td> <td width="8%" valign="top" colspan=2 bgcolor="#ffffff"> <a href="clusters09t.html">/ t /</a></td> <td width="8%" valign="top" bgcolor="#ffffff"> <a href="clusters10d.html">/ d /</a></td> <td width="8%" valign="top" colspan=2 bgcolor="#ffffff"> <a href="clusters11s.html">/ s /</a></td> <td width="8%" valign="top" bgcolor="#ffffff"> <a href="clusters12z.html">/ z /</a></td> </tr> </table> <table border=0 cellspacing=0 cellpadding=9 width=710> <tr> <td width="8%" valign="top" bgcolor="#ffffff"> <a href="clusters13l.html">/ l /</a></td> <td width="8%" valign="top" bgcolor="#ffffff"> <a href="#cc13r.html">/ r /</a></td> <td width="8%" valign="top" colspan=2 bgcolor="#ffffff"> <a href="clusters14ch.html">/ &#679; /</a></td> <td width="8%" valign="top" bgcolor="#ffffff"> <a href="clusters15j.html">/ &#676; /</a></td> <td width="8%" valign="top" bgcolor="#ffffff"> <a href="clusters16sh.html">/ &#643; /</a></td> <td width="8%" valign="top" colspan=2 bgcolor="#ffffff"> <a href="clusters173.html">/ &#658; /</a></td> <td width="8%" valign="top" colspan=2 bgcolor="#ffffff"> <a href="#cc17j.html">/ j /</a></td> <td width="8%" valign="top" bgcolor="#ffffff"> <a href="clusters18ng.html">/ &#331; /</a></td> <td width="8%" valign="top" bgcolor="#ffffff"> <a href="clusters19k.html">/ k /</a></td> <td width="8%" valign="top" bgcolor="#ffffff"> <a href="clusters20g.html">/ g /</a></td> </tr> </table> <hr> <h2>Quick reference:</h2> <p>(Jumps to section below)<font color="#ffffff">-----------</font><b>for consonant clusters beginning with:</b></p> <table border=0 cellspacing=0 cellpadding=9 width=710> <tr> <td width="8%" valign="top" colspan=2 bgcolor="#ffffff"> <a href="#cc01.html">/ m /</a></td> <td width="8%" valign="top" bgcolor="#ffffff"> <a href="#cc02.html">/ p /</a></td> <td width="8%" valign="top" bgcolor="#ffffff"> <a href="#cc03.html">/ b /</a></td> <td width="8%" valign="top" colspan=2 bgcolor="#ffffff"> <a href="#cc04.html">/ f /</a></td> <td width="8%" valign="top" bgcolor="#ffffff"> <a href="#cc05.html">/ v /</a></td> <td width="8%" valign="top" bgcolor="#ffffff"> <a href="#cc06.html">/ &#952; /</a></td> <td width="8%" valign="top" bgcolor="#ffffff"> <a href="#cc07.html">/ &#240; /</a></td> <td width="8%" valign="top" bgcolor="#ffffff"> <a href="#cc08.html">/ n /</a></td> <td width="8%" valign="top" colspan=2 bgcolor="#ffffff"> <a href="#cc09.html">/ t /</a></td> <td width="8%" valign="top" bgcolor="#ffffff"> <a href="#cc10.html">/ d /</a></td> <td width="8%" valign="top" colspan=2 bgcolor="#ffffff"> <a href="#cc11.html">/ s /</a></td> <td width="8%" valign="top" bgcolor="#ffffff"> <a href="#cc12.html">/ z /</a></td> </tr> </table> <table border=0 cellspacing=0 cellpadding=9 width=710> <tr> <td width="8%" valign="top" bgcolor="#ffffff"> <a href="#cc13.html">/ l /</a></td> <td width="8%" valign="top" bgcolor="#ffffff"> <a href="#cc13r.html">/ r /</a></td> <td width="8%" valign="top" colspan=2 bgcolor="#ffffff"> <a href="#cc14.html">/ &#679; /</a></td> <td width="8%" valign="top" bgcolor="#ffffff"> <a href="#cc15.html">/ &#676; /</a></td> <td width="8%" valign="top" bgcolor="#ffffff"> <a href="#cc16.html">/ &#643; /</a></td> <td width="8%" valign="top" colspan=2 bgcolor="#ffffff"> <a href="#cc17.html">/ &#658; /</a></td> <td width="8%" valign="top" colspan=2 bgcolor="#ffffff"> <a href="#cc17j.html">/ j/</a></td> <td width="8%" valign="top" bgcolor="#ffffff"> <a href="#cc18.html">/ &#331; /</a></td> <td width="8%" valign="top" bgcolor="#ffffff"> <a href="#cc19.html">/ k /</a></td> <td width="8%" valign="top" bgcolor="#ffffff"> <a href="#cc20.html">/ g /</a></td> </tr> </table> <hr> <p><b><a name="cc01.html">beginning with voiced bilabial nasal</a><font color="#ffffff">----</font> / m / <font color="#ffffff">---------</font><a href="#glossary.html">GLOSSARY</a></b></p> <p>001<font color="#ffffff">---------</font>mp (final) <font color="#ffffff">-------</font>bump, camp, hemp, limp, lump, ramp </p> <p>002<font color="#ffffff">---------</font>mps (final) <font color="#ffffff">-----</font> amps, camps, lamps, lumps, mumps, trumps</p> <p>003<font color="#ffffff">---------</font>mf (final) <font color="#ffffff">-------</font>lymph, nymph</p> <p>004<font color="#ffffff">---------</font>mft (final) <font color="#ffffff">------</font>triumphed</p> <p>005<font color="#ffffff">---------</font>mfs (final) <font color="#ffffff">------</font>nymphs</p> <p>006<font color="#ffffff">---------</font>mt (final) <font color="#ffffff">-------</font>camped, dreamt revamped, lumped</p> <p>007<font color="#ffffff">---------</font>mt (medial) <font color="#ffffff">------</font>empty, temptation</p> <p>008<font color="#ffffff">---------</font>mtr (medial) <font color="#ffffff">-----</font>temptress</p> <p>009<font color="#ffffff">---------</font>mts (final) <font color="#ffffff">-------</font>tempts</p> <p>010<font color="#ffffff">---------</font>md (final) <font color="#ffffff">-------</font>aimed, assumed, formed, roamed, shamed</p> <p>011<font color="#ffffff">---------</font>mst (final) <font color="#ffffff">------</font>glimpsed</p> <p>012<font color="#ffffff">---------</font>mz (final) <font color="#ffffff">-------</font>comes, terms, times</p> <hr> <p><b><a name="cc02.html">beginning with voiceless bilabial plosive</a><font color="#ffffff">----</font> / p / </b><font color="#ffffff">----</font><a href="clustersindex.html">[ Back ]</a></p> <p>013<font color="#ffffff">---------</font>p&#952; (final)<font color="#ffffff">--------</font>depth</p> <p>014<font color="#ffffff">---------</font>p&#952;s (final)<font color="#ffffff">-------</font>depths</p> <p>015<font color="#ffffff">---------</font>p&#952;r (medial)<font color="#ffffff">------</font>upthrust</p> <p>016<font color="#ffffff">---------</font>pt (final) <font color="#ffffff">--------</font>abrupt, Egypt, except, harped, kept, opt</p> <p>017<font color="#ffffff">---------</font>pt (medial)<font color="#ffffff">------</font>abruptly, absorption, acceptable</p> <p>018<font color="#ffffff">---------</font>pts (final) <font color="#ffffff">-------</font>accepts, adopts</p> <p>019<font color="#ffffff">---------</font>ps (final) <font color="#ffffff">--------</font>cups, equips, jumps, perhaps, steps</p> <p>020<font color="#ffffff">---------</font>ps (medial) <font color="#ffffff">------</font>Epsom, Ipswich, lopsided, upside down</p> <p>021<font color="#ffffff">---------</font>pst (final) <font color="#ffffff">-------</font>lapsed</p> <hr> <p><b><a name="cc03.html">beginning with voiced bilabial plosive</a><font color="#ffffff">----</font> / b / </b><font color="#ffffff">----</font><a href="clustersindex.html">[ Back ]</a></p> <p>022<font color="#ffffff">---------</font>bd (final) <font color="#ffffff">--------</font>absorbed, bribed, curbed, lobbed, robed, robbed</p> <p>023<font color="#ffffff">---------</font>bz (final) <font color="#ffffff">--------</font>cabs, fibs, jabs, knobs, verbs, yobs</p> <hr> <p><b><a name="cc04.html">beginning with voiceless labiodental fricative</a><font color="#ffffff">----</font> / f / </b><font color="#ffffff">----</font><a href="clustersindex.html">[ Back ]</a></p> <p>024<font color="#ffffff">---------</font>f&#952; (final) <font color="#ffffff">---------</font>fifth, twelfth</p> <p>025<font color="#ffffff">---------</font>f&#952;s (final) <font color="#ffffff">--------</font>fifths, twelfths</p> <p>026<font color="#ffffff">---------</font>f&#952;l (medial) <font color="#ffffff">------</font>fifthly</p> <p>027<font color="#ffffff">---------</font>ft (final) <font color="#ffffff">---------</font>craft, drift, gift, left, lift, loft, soft</p> <p>028<font color="#ffffff">---------</font>ft (medial) <font color="#ffffff">-------</font>after, daftest, often rafter, softly, swiftly, thrifty</p> <p>029<font color="#ffffff">---------</font>fts (final) <font color="#ffffff">--------</font>crofts, drifts, gifts, lifts, lofts</p> <p>030<font color="#ffffff">---------</font>fs (final) <font color="#ffffff">---------</font>beliefs, cliffs, chefs, chiefs, hankerchiefs, laughs</p> <hr> <p><b><a name="cc05.html">beginning with voiced labiodental fricative</a><font color="#ffffff">----</font> / v / </b><font color="#ffffff">----</font><a href="clustersindex.html">[ Back ]</a></p> <p>031<font color="#ffffff">---------</font>vd (final) <font color="#ffffff">--------</font>arrived, believed, involved, lived, proved, saved</p> <p>032<font color="#ffffff">---------</font>vz (final) <font color="#ffffff">--------</font>additives, captives, loaves, loves, serves, waves</p> <hr> <p><b><a name="cc06.html">beginning with voiceless dental fricative</a><font color="#ffffff">----</font> / &#952; / </b><font color="#ffffff">----</font><a href="clustersindex.html">[ Back ]</a></p> <p>033<font color="#ffffff">---------</font>&#952;s (final) <font color="#ffffff">--------</font>baths, cloths, maths, oaths, paths, truths</p> <hr> <p><b><a name="cc07.html">beginning with voiced dental fricative</a><font color="#ffffff">----</font> / &#240; / </b><font color="#ffffff">----</font><a href="clustersindex.html">[ Back ]</a></p> <p>034<font color="#ffffff">---------</font>&#240;d (final) <font color="#ffffff">--------</font>bathed, betrothed, clothed, seethed, swathed </p> <p>035<font color="#ffffff">---------</font>&#240;z (final) <font color="#ffffff">--------</font>bathes, breathes, clothes, loathes, seethes, soothes </p> <hr> <p><b><a name="cc08.html">beginning with voiced alveolar nasal</a><font color="#ffffff">----</font> / n / </b><font color="#ffffff">----</font><a href="clustersindex.html">[ Back ]</a></p> <p>036<font color="#ffffff">---------</font>n&#952; (final) <font color="#ffffff">-------</font>month, tenth</p> <p>037<font color="#ffffff">---------</font>n&#952; (medial) <font color="#ffffff">-----</font>anthem</p> <p>038<font color="#ffffff">---------</font>nt (final) <font color="#ffffff">--------</font>ant, arent, aunt, bent, cant, font, want</p> <p>039<font color="#ffffff">---------</font>nts (final) <font color="#ffffff">-------</font>ants, fonts, grunts, hints, hunts, pants </p> <p>040<font color="#ffffff">---------</font>ntst (final) <font color="#ffffff">------</font>chintzed</p> <p>041<font color="#ffffff">---------</font>nd (final) <font color="#ffffff">-------</font>behind, concerned, find, found, friend, owned</p> <p>042<font color="#ffffff">---------</font>nd (medial) <font color="#ffffff">-----</font>friendship, landlord <font color="#ffffff">-----</font>* Note rules for deletion of / d /</p> <p>043<font color="#ffffff">---------</font>ndz (final) <font color="#ffffff">------</font>bends, ends, friends, sounds</p> <p>044<font color="#ffffff">---------</font>ns (final) <font color="#ffffff">-------</font>hence, pence, since, tense</p> <p>045<font color="#ffffff">---------</font>ns (medial) <font color="#ffffff">-----</font>pensive, tenses</p> <p>046<font color="#ffffff">---------</font>nz (final) <font color="#ffffff">-------</font>hens, lens, pens, runs, tens</p> <p>047<font color="#ffffff">---------</font>n&#679; (final) <font color="#ffffff">-------</font>lunch, pinch</p> <p>048<font color="#ffffff">---------</font>n&#679;t (final) <font color="#ffffff">------</font>lunched, pinched</p> <p>049<font color="#ffffff">---------</font>n&#676; (final) <font color="#ffffff">------</font>change, hinge</p> <p>050<font color="#ffffff">---------</font>n&#676;d (final) <font color="#ffffff">-----</font>changed, hinged</p> <hr> <p><b><a name="cc09.html">beginning with voiceless alveolar plosive</a><font color="#ffffff">----</font> / t / </b><font color="#ffffff">----</font><a href="clustersindex.html">[ Back ]</a></p> <p>051<font color="#ffffff">---------</font>t&#952; (final) <font color="#ffffff">--------</font>breadth, eighth, hundredth, thousandth, width </p> <p>052<font color="#ffffff">---------</font>t&#952;s (final) <font color="#ffffff">-------</font>breadths, eighths, hundredths, thousandths, widths </p> <p>053<font color="#ffffff">---------</font>ts (final) <font color="#ffffff">--------</font>cats, eats, fights, its, meets, parts, puts, waits </p> <p>054<font color="#ffffff">---------</font>tst (final) <font color="#ffffff">------</font>amidst, midst</p> <hr> <p><b><a name="cc10.html">beginning with voiced alveolar plosive</a><font color="#ffffff">----</font> / d / </b><font color="#ffffff">----</font><a href="clustersindex.html">[ Back ]</a></p> <p>055<font color="#ffffff">---------</font>dz (final) <font color="#ffffff">-------</font>almonds, beds, birds, hands, kinds, weeds, words</p> <hr> <p><b><a name="cc11.html">beginning with voiceless alveolar fricative</a><font color="#ffffff">----</font> / s / </b><font color="#ffffff">----</font><a href="clustersindex.html">[ Back ]</a></p> <p>056<font color="#ffffff">---------</font>sp (final) <font color="#ffffff">-------</font>clasp, crisp, gasp, lisp, wasp</p> <p>057<font color="#ffffff">---------</font>st (final) <font color="#ffffff">-------</font>chased, first, pursed</p> <p>058<font color="#ffffff">---------</font>sts (final) <font color="#ffffff">------</font>thirsts</p> <p>059<font color="#ffffff">---------</font>sk (final) <font color="#ffffff">-------</font>ask, desk, dusk, risk</p> <hr> <p><b><a name="cc12.html">beginning with voiced alveolar fricative</a><font color="#ffffff">----</font> / z / </b><font color="#ffffff">----</font><a href="clustersindex.html">[ Back ]</a></p> <p>060<font color="#ffffff">---------</font>zd (final) <font color="#ffffff">-------</font>amazed, crazed, gazed, lazed, phased, phrased</p> <hr> <p><b><a name="cc13.html">beginning with voiced alveolar lateral approximant</a><font color="#ffffff">----</font> / l / </b><font color="#ffffff">----</font><a href="clustersindex.html">[ Back ]</a></p> <p>061<font color="#ffffff">---------</font>lmd (final) <font color="#ffffff">------</font>filmed</p> <p>062<font color="#ffffff">---------</font>lmz (final) <font color="#ffffff">------</font>elms, films</p> <p>063<font color="#ffffff">---------</font>lp (final) <font color="#ffffff">--------</font>help</p> <p>064<font color="#ffffff">---------</font>lpt (final) <font color="#ffffff">-------</font>helped</p> <p>065<font color="#ffffff">---------</font>lps (final) <font color="#ffffff">-------</font>helps</p> <p>066<font color="#ffffff">---------</font>lbd (final) <font color="#ffffff">-------</font>bulbed</p> <p>067<font color="#ffffff">---------</font>lbz (final) <font color="#ffffff">-------</font>bulbs</p> <p>068<font color="#ffffff">---------</font>lf (final) <font color="#ffffff">---------</font>self</p> <p>069<font color="#ffffff">---------</font>lf&#952;s (final) <font color="#ffffff">-------</font>twelfths, Alfs</p> <p>070<font color="#ffffff">---------</font>lft (final) <font color="#ffffff">--------</font>elfed</p> <p>071<font color="#ffffff">---------</font>lvd (final) <font color="#ffffff">-------</font>delved</p> <p>072<font color="#ffffff">---------</font>l&#952; (final) <font color="#ffffff">--------</font>health</p> <p>073<font color="#ffffff">---------</font>l&#952;s (final) <font color="#ffffff">-------</font>tilths</p> <p>074<font color="#ffffff">---------</font>lnd (final) <font color="#ffffff">-------</font>kilned</p> <p>075<font color="#ffffff">---------</font>lnz (final) <font color="#ffffff">-------</font>kilns</p> <p>076<font color="#ffffff">---------</font>lt (final) <font color="#ffffff">--------</font>difficult</p> <p>077<font color="#ffffff">---------</font>ltst (final) <font color="#ffffff">-------</font>waltzed</p> <p>078<font color="#ffffff">---------</font>ld (final) <font color="#ffffff">--------</font>cold, held</p> <p>079<font color="#ffffff">---------</font>ldz (final) <font color="#ffffff">-------</font>holds, worlds</p> <p>080<font color="#ffffff">---------</font>ls (final) <font color="#ffffff">--------</font>else</p> <p>081<font color="#ffffff">---------</font>lz (final) <font color="#ffffff">--------</font>fills, girls</p> <p>082<font color="#ffffff">---------</font>l&#679;t (final) <font color="#ffffff">-------</font>filched</p> <p>083<font color="#ffffff">---------</font>l&#676;d (final) <font color="#ffffff">------</font>bilged</p> <p>084<font color="#ffffff">---------</font>l&#643;t (final) <font color="#ffffff">--------</font>welshed</p> <p>085<font color="#ffffff">---------</font>lk (final) <font color="#ffffff">--------</font>milk, silk</p> <p>086<font color="#ffffff">---------</font>lks (final) <font color="#ffffff">-------</font>milks</p> <p>087<font color="#ffffff">---------</font>lkt (final) <font color="#ffffff">-------</font>milked</p> <p>088<font color="#ffffff">---------</font>lkts (final) <font color="#ffffff">------</font>mulcts</p> <hr> <p><b><a name="cc13r.html">beginning with voiced alveolar approximant</a> <font color="#ffffff">------</font> / r / </b><font color="#ffffff">----</font><a href="clustersindex.html">[ Back ]</a></p> <p>rm (final) <font color="#ffffff">-------</font>silent before a consonant in England & Wales<font color="#ffffff">-------</font> "alarm" / &#601;&#712;l&#593;:m /, "arm" / &#712;&#593;:m /, "warm" / &#712;w&#596;:m /</p> <p>rm (final) <font color="#ffffff">-------</font>generally pronounced (& sometimes rolled) in Scotland & Ireland<br /><font color="#ffffff">----------------</font> "alarm" / &#601;&#712;l&#593;:rm /, "arm" / &#712;&#593;:rm /, "warm" / &#712;w&#596;:rm /</p> <p>The / r / within these consonant clusters is generally pronounced in Canada most parts of the USA.</p> <p>The / r / is pronounced by all English speakers when it precedes a vowel sound, as in "angry" / &#712;&#230;r&#618; / or "zebra" / &#712;zebr&#601; /.</p> <p>/ r / can precede several other consonants sounds, though in these contexts it is rarely pronounced in England and Wales.</p> <hr> <p><b><a name="cc14.html">beginning with voiceless post-alveolar affricate</a><font color="#ffffff">----</font> / &#679; / </b><font color="#ffffff">----</font><a href="clustersindex.html">[ Back ]</a></p> <p>089<font color="#ffffff">---------</font>&#679;t (final) <font color="#ffffff">-------</font>hitched, matched, watched</p> <hr> <p><b><a name="cc15.html">beginning with voiceless post-alveolar affricate</a><font color="#ffffff">----</font> / &#676; / </b><font color="#ffffff">----</font><a href="clustersindex.html">[ Back ]</a></p> <p>090<font color="#ffffff">---------</font>&#676;d (final) <font color="#ffffff">------</font>caged, edged, forged, judged, waged</p> <hr> <p><b><a name="cc16.html">beginning with voiceless post-alveolar fricative</a><font color="#ffffff">----</font> / &#643; / </b><font color="#ffffff">----</font><a href="clustersindex.html">[ Back ]</a></p> <p>091<font color="#ffffff">---------</font>&#643;t (final) <font color="#ffffff">-------</font>cashed, fished, mashed, washed</p> <hr> <p><b><a name="cc17.html">beginning with voiceless post-alveolar fricative</a><font color="#ffffff">----</font> / &#658; / </b><font color="#ffffff">----</font><a href="clustersindex.html">[ Back ]</a></p> <p>092<font color="#ffffff">---------</font>&#658;d (final) <font color="#ffffff">-------</font>leisured, measured, pleasured, treasured</p> <hr> <p><b><a name="cc17j.html">beginning with voiced palatal semi-vocalic</a><font color="#ffffff">----</font> / j / </b><font color="#ffffff">----</font><a href="clustersindex.html">[ Back ]</a></p> <p>/ t / + / j / is often replaced by / &#679; / in words such as "nature" / &#712;ne&#618;&#679;&#601;&#691; /, "future" / &#712;fju:&#679;&#601;&#691; /, "feature" / &#712;fi:&#679;&#601;&#691; /, and "creature" / &#712;kri:&#679;&#601;&#691; /. This type of assimilation is known as coalescence. See <a href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Yod_coalescence">Wikipedia</a> on <a href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Yod_coalescence">Yod-coalescence</a>. </p> <p>/ d / + / j / is often replaced by / &#676; / in words such as "gradual" / &#712;gr&#230;&#676;&#650;&#601;l / and individual / . This type of assimilation is known as coalescence. See <a href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Yod_coalescence">Wikipedia</a> on <a href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Yod_coalescence">Yod-coalescence</a>. </p></p> <hr> <p><b><a name="cc18.html">beginning with voiced velar nasal</a><font color="#ffffff">----</font> / &#331; / </b><font color="#ffffff">----</font><a href="clustersindex.html">[ Back ]</a></p> <p>093<font color="#ffffff">---------</font>&#331;&#952; (final) <font color="#ffffff">-------</font>length</p> <p>094<font color="#ffffff">---------</font>&#331;t (final) <font color="#ffffff">-------</font>instinct</p> <p>095<font color="#ffffff">---------</font>&#331;ts (final) <font color="#ffffff">------</font>instincts</p> <p>096<font color="#ffffff">---------</font>&#331;d (final) <font color="#ffffff">-------</font>longed</p> <p>097<font color="#ffffff">---------</font>&#331;st (medial) <font color="#ffffff">-----</font>minxed</p> <p>098<font color="#ffffff">---------</font>&#331;z (final) <font color="#ffffff">-------</font>things</p> <p>099<font color="#ffffff">---------</font>&#331;k (final) <font color="#ffffff">-------</font>think</p> <p>100<font color="#ffffff">---------</font>&#331;g (final) <font color="#ffffff">-------</font>thing</p> <hr> <p><b><a name="cc19.html">beginning with voiceless velar plosive</a><font color="#ffffff">----</font> / k / </b><font color="#ffffff">----</font><a href="clustersindex.html">[ Back ]</a></p> <p>101<font color="#ffffff">---------</font>k&#952; (final) <font color="#ffffff">-------</font>sixth</p> <p>102<font color="#ffffff">---------</font>k&#952;s (final) <font color="#ffffff">------</font>sixths</p> <p>103<font color="#ffffff">---------</font>kt (final) <font color="#ffffff">-------</font>fact, worked</p> <p>104<font color="#ffffff">---------</font>kts (final) <font color="#ffffff">------</font>conflicts, contexts, expects texts</p> <p>105<font color="#ffffff">---------</font>ks (final) <font color="#ffffff">-------</font>six, works</p> <p>106<font color="#ffffff">---------</font>kst (final) <font color="#ffffff">------</font>context, next, oversexed, pretext, text</p> <hr> <p><b><a name="cc20.html">beginning with voiced velar plosive</a><font color="#ffffff">----</font> / g / </b><font color="#ffffff">----</font><a href="clustersindex.html">[ Back ]</a></p> <p>107<font color="#ffffff">---------</font>gd (final) <font color="#ffffff">-------</font>bagged, hugged, logged, tagged, wagged</p> <p>108<font color="#ffffff">---------</font>gz (final) <font color="#ffffff">-------</font>eggs, figs, mugs, rugs</p> <hr> <h1><a name="glossary.html">Glossary</a></h1> <p><a href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Voiced_consonant">Voiceless and voiced</a></p> <ul> <li><a href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Voiced_consonant">Voiceless consonants</a><font color="#ffffff">-</font>no vibration of the <a href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Vocal_cords">vocal cords</a> and more pulmonic air.</li> <li><a href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Voiced_consonant">Voiced consonants</a><font color="#ffffff">-</font>the <a href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Vocal_cords">vocal cords</a> vibrate, limiting the airflow.</li> </ul> <p><a href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Place_of_articulation">Place of articulation</a></p> <ul> <li><a href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bilabial_consonant">Bilabial consonants</a> / m /, / p / and / b / are made with both lips.</li> <li><a href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Labiodental_consonant">Labio-dental consonants</a> / f / and / v / are made with the upper teeth and the lower lip.</li> <li><a href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Dental_consonant">Dental consonants</a> / &#952; / and / &#240; / are made with the tip of the tongue against the upper teeth.</li> <li><a href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Alveolar_consonant">Alveolar consonants</a> / n /, / t /, / s /, / z / and / l / are made with the tip of the tongue against or near to the ridge behind the upper teeth.</li> <li><a href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Postalveolar_consonant">Postalveolar consonants</a> / &#643; /, / &#658; /, / &#679; / and / &#676; / are made with the tongue near or touching the back of the alveolar ridge, placing them a bit further back in the mouth than the alveolar consonants, which are at the ridge itself, but not quite as far back as the hard palate.</li> <li><a href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Velar_consonant">Velar consonants</a> / &#331; /, / k / and / g / are made with the back part of the tongue against the back part of the roof of the mouth.</li> </ul> <p><a href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Manner_of_articulation">Manner of articulation</a></p> <ul> <li><a href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Nasal_consonant">Nasal consonants</a> / m /, / n / and / &#331; / are made with the <a href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Soft_palate">velum</a> lowered, allowing air to escape through the nose.</li> <li><a href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Stop_consonant">Plosives or stop consonants</a> / p /, / b /, / t /, / d /, / k / and / g / are made by stopping the airflow in the vocal tract.</li> <li><a href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Fricative_consonant">Fricative consonants</a> / f /, / v /, / &#952; /, / &#240; /, / s / and / z / are made by forcing air through a narrow channel by placing two <a href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Place_of_articulation">articulators</a> close together.</li> <li><a href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Affricate_consonant">Affricate consonants</a> / &#679; / and / &#676; / start as plosives, but release as fricatives rather than directly into the following vowel.</li> </ul> <p><br /></p> <table border=0 cellspacing=1 cellpadding=9 width=630> <td width="25%" valign="top" bgcolor="#008000"> <a href="index.html"><b><p align="center"><font color="#ffffff">HOME</font></b></a></td> <td width="25%" valign="top" bgcolor="#ff0000"> <a href="teflindex.htm"><b><p align="center"><font color="#ffffff">TEACHING</font></b></a></td> <td width="25%" valign="top" bgcolor="#0000ff"> <a href="phono.html"><b><p align="center"><font color="#ffffff">PRONUNCIATION</font></b></a></td> <td width="25%" valign="top" bgcolor="#EE3E80"> <a href="links.html"><b><p align="center"><font color="#ffffff">LINKS</font></b></a></td> </tr> </table> </tr> </table> </body> </html>