<html> <head> <title>Terminology and jargon used in English language learning and teaching</title> <meta http-equiv="Content-Type" content="text/html; charset=utf-8" /> <meta name="description" content="Define these terms: idioms, clichs, jargon, slang, mottoes, phonemes, allophones and redundancy in language."> <meta name="keywords" content="terminology,terms,jargon,english,language, learning,teaching,linguistics,idioms,clichs,jargon,slang,mottoes,phonemes,allophones,redundancy,linguistic,description,reference" /> <link rel="stylesheet" href="styletefl.css" /> </head> <body text="#000000" link="#000080" vlink="#000000" bgcolor="#ffffff"> <table border=0 cellspacing=1 cellpadding=9 width=630> <td width="25%" valign="top" bgcolor="#008000"> <a href="index.html"><b><p align="center"><font color="#ffffff">HOME</font></b></a></td> <td width="25%" valign="top" bgcolor="#ff0000"> <a href="teflindex.htm"><b><p align="center"><font color="#ffffff">TEACHING</font></b></a></td> <td width="25%" valign="top" bgcolor="#58002B"> <a href="teflcourses.html"><b><p align="center"><font color="#ffffff">ELT BOOKS</font></b></a></td> <td width="25%" valign="top" bgcolor="#00AEED"> <a href="esl0204.html"><b><p align="center"><font color="#ffffff">NEXT</font></b></a></td> </tr> </table> <h3>Terms used to describe language in TESL/TEFL and applied linguistics</h3> <h3><font collor="#800000">Defining your terms</font></h3> <p><b>Idioms, clich&eacute;s, jargon, slang, mottoes, phonemes, allophones, redundancy</b></p> <ul> <li><b>An idiom</b> is any expression (within a given language) conveying a distict meaning not necessarily explicable by (&amp; occasionally contrary to) the general accepted grammatical rules.</p> <p>A knowledge of the meaning of individual words in the expression may provide little or no clue to the meaning of the whole expression. E.g. on the other hand; carry it off; to have half a mind to do something.<br /><br /></li> <li><b>A clich&eacute;</b> is a term or description used with such regularity or predictability (frequently in conversation but also in other language fields) that interpretation is a question of recognising convention as opposed to literal meaning.<br /><br />Although clich&eacute;s may help to convey the mood of the language user they rarely convey any distinct meaning. E.g. really great; a smash hit; a jolly fine day.<br /><br />Clich&eacute;s can also be idioms, examples of slang (have it off), Anericanisms (have a nice day!) or share other such characteristics.<br /><br /></li> <li><b>Jargon</b> is the collective term for the words, expressions, technical terms etc. which are intelligible to the members of a specific group, social circle or profession, but not to the general public. E.g. Multiple Independently Targeted Re-entry Vehicle .<br /><br />N.B. <b>the abbreviation</b> (e.g. MITRV) is often used to denote the technical term obscuring the meaning still further from the general public. Similarly, in linguistics we talk about "Mim-mem" techniques, "mediation theory" and the "cognitive-code".<br /><br />"New Wave", "freak-out", "rip-off" are <b>examples of jargon</b> used among a specific group. A different social circle may recognise some of the same terms as <b>slang</b> or fail to understand them.<br /><br /></li> <li><b>A slogan</b> is a phrase or sentence of short or medium length (frquently a declarative statement or command) acclaiming or denigrating a particular product, party or cause. E.g. Guiness is good for you. Don't say Brown, day Hovis. Racist pigs OUT.<br /><br />Ban the bomb! Fight for King &amp; Country! Life is better under the ....<br /><br /></li> <li><b>A motto</b> is a phrase or sentence of short or medium length ( a maxim) containing a personally applicable message for serious adoption as a rule of conduct. Mottoes are usually more universal than slogans which relate more closely to a particular context. <br /><br />The timeless quality is reflected in the abundance of <b>Latin mottoes:</b> Ad Altum (To the heights), Spes sibi quisbi (Never give up hope) found in odd corners of English society. Be prepared& "To be pure in thought and deed".<br /><br />A motto can also be defined as a sentence inscribed on some object and expressing appropriate sentiment e.g. "Horsemen, pass by".<br /><br /></li> <li><b>A phoneme</b> is a single speech-sound or group of similar or related speech-sounds which function analogously in a given language. Psychological view: "ideal sound at which the speaker aims".</p> <p>Physical view (Daniel Jones) : A family of sounds which are phonetically similar. American linguists (Bloomfield) : A minimal unit of distinctive sound feature.<br /><br /></li> <li><b>An allophone</b> is one of several variants of speech sounds which constitute a phoneme. Note that the /k/ phoneme occurs twice in the word "cook" but it is differently produced. There are two allophones of the /k/ phoneme in cook.<br /><br /></li> <li><p>Redundancy in speech</b> - Speech is said to be redundant when it contains more than one signal for the same aspect of meaning. E.g. Well.. I mean.. Let's face it. What I mean is that if he could possibly have made it on time, it would have been better.<br /><br />"Unnecessary" clues to meaning which contribute to redundancy in speech are provided by intonation contours, stress patterns, junctures (transition and boundary features) and tone of voice as well as repetition and duplication.<br /><br /></li> <li><b>Alliteration</b> - the recurrence of the same initial sound or letter (or group of sounds or letters) in succeeding words: e.g. Sir Gawain and D.H. Lawrence's Snake and "Sister Susie sits sewing shirts for saucy sailors.<br /><br /></li> <li><b>A collocation</b> is a group of two or more words used in habitual association with one another e.g. Out of work/order/date At work/night/a pinch By rights/heart/chance.</li> </ul> <hr> <br /><br /></li> <h3><a name="books">Books on the terms used in language teaching theory and applied linguistics</a></h3> <p>1. <a href="http://affiliates.abebooks.com/c/339214/77416/2029?u=https%3A%2F%2Fwww.abebooks.co.uk%2Fservlet%2FSearchResults%3Fan%3DCrystal%26sts%3Dt%26tn%3DFirst%2BDictionary%2Bof%2BLinguistics%2Band%2BPhonetics">First Dictionary of Linguistics and Phonetics, A</a> (The Language Library)</i> by David Crystal</p> <p>2. <a href="http://www.awin1.com/cread.php?awinmid=1414&awinaffid=239401&clickref=&p=http%3A%2F%2Fwww.foyles.co.uk%2Fwitem%2Flanguages%2Fthe-cambridge-encyclopedia-of-language%2Cdavid-crystal-9780521736503">The Cambridge Encyclopedia of Language</a></p> <p>3. <a href="http://www.awin1.com/cread.php?awinmid=1414&awinaffid=239401&clickref=&p=http%3A%2F%2Fwww.foyles.co.uk%2Fwitem%2Flanguages%2Fthe-cambridge-encyclopedia-of-the%2Cdavid-crystal-9780521530330">The Cambridge Encyclopedia of the English Language</a> (if I could only afford one book to develop as an English language learner or teacher, it would be this one).</p> <p>The above three books are by David Crystal, who for me is one of the UK's finest linguists. Among his many works are books on phonetics, syntax and such specialist applications as assessing language disabilities. There could not be a more qualified author to write a reference book defining terms used in linguistic description. The generous coverage of terms used in phonetics, where definition is of major practical importance (e.g. for speech therapists as well as pronunciation teachers) makes the above three titles especially useful.</p> <p>4. <a href="http://www.awin1.com/cread.php?awinmid=1414&awinaffid=239401&clickref=&p=http%3A%2F%2Fwww.foyles.co.uk%2Fwitem%2Feducation%2Flongman-dictionary-of-language%2Cjack-c-richards-richard-w-schmidt-9781408204603">Longman Dictionary of Language Teaching and Applied Linguistics</a> by Jack C. Richards and Richard Schmidt</p> <p>One of the finest North American linguists who has applied his writing to language teaching is Jack C. Richards. This work started out as 'The Longman Dictionary of Applied Linguistics', but is now targeted at Language Teaching as well, an area in which Jack C. Richards is well known for his contributions.</p> <p>5. <a href="http://www.awin1.com/cread.php?awinmid=5478&awinaffid=239401&clickref=&p=http%3A%2F%2Fwww.bookdepository.com%2FPractical-Techniques-Michael-Lewis-Jimmie-Hill%2F9780906717554%3Fref%3Dgrid-view">Practical Techniques for Language Teaching</a> (LTP teacher training) (Language Teaching Publications) by Michael Lewis and Jimmie Hill</p> <p>This work covers most of what is needed for trainee teachers covering the CTEFLA syllabus. This is the examination offered by the University of Cambridge Syndicate for Local Examinations based in the UK for teachers requiring a basic certificate in the Teaching of English as a Foreign Language to Adults. This examination should be the first stepping stone for less experienced teachers or trainee teachers in the UK for entry into the TEFL industry. This is the first qualification to aim at if you want to be eligible for English teaching jobs abroad or junior or temporary posts in UK-based language schools. The book is clearly written and will be appreciated by teachers who want things explained without being overloaded with jargon and technical terms. Having suffered most of the jargon and inflicted it on others, I found the book agreable to read.</p> <table border=0 cellspacing=1 cellpadding=9 width=630> <td width="25%" valign="top" bgcolor="#008000"> <a href="index.html"><b><p align="center"><font color="#ffffff">HOME</font></b></a></td> <td width="25%" valign="top" bgcolor="#ff0000"> <a href="teflindex.htm"><b><p align="center"><font color="#ffffff">TEACHING</font></b></a></td> <td width="25%" valign="top" bgcolor="#58002B"> <a href="teflcourses.html"><b><p align="center"><font color="#ffffff">ELT BOOKS</font></b></a></td> <td width="25%" valign="top" bgcolor="#00AEED"> <a href="esl0204.html"><b><p align="center"><font color="#ffffff">NEXT</font></b></a></td> </tr> </table> <p><br /></p> </body> </html>