Taiwanese language backgrounds

27 common English pronunciation problems

FIX PROBLEM ENGLISH SOUND - COMMON ERROR - PRACTICE MATERIALS
Spread lips more and keep tongue high. /i:/ "seat" /ɪ/ "sit" Minimal Pairs /ɪ/ or / i: / practice

Keep tongue front & low and jaws apart. /æ/ "cat" /ɑ:/ "cart" Minimal Pairs /æ/ or /ɑ:/ practice

Move tongue to a lower front position. /æ/ "man" /e/ "men" Minimal Pairs /e/ or /æ/ practice

Keep tongue front & low and jaws apart. /æ/ "ran" /ʌ/ "run" Minimal Pairs /æ/ or /ʌ/ practice

Tongue more central. Lips relaxed. /ʌ/ "bud" /æ/ "bad" Minimal Pairs /æ/ or /ʌ/ practice

Tongue low central. Lips relaxed. /ʌ/ "bud" /ɜ:/ "bird" Minimal Pairs /ʌ/ or /ɜ:/ practice

Keep mouth round and sound short. /ɒ/ "not" /ɔ:/ "nought" Minimal Pairs /ɒ/ or /ɔ:/ practice
Minimal Pairs /ɑ:/ or /ɒ/ practice

Keep mouth round and tongue back. /ɒ/ "God" /ʊ/ "good"
Back of tongue high. Lips tightly rounded. Long. /u:/ "fool" /ʊ/ "full" Minimal Pairs /ʊ/ or / u: / practice

Voiced. Vibration. Trap air with lips. /b/ "bill" /p/ "pill"
Tip of tongue behind top teeth. /d/ "made" /t/ "mate" Minimal Pairs /t/ or /d/ practice

Voiced. Friction with top teeth & bottom lip. /v/ "van" /f/ "fan"
Voiced. Friction with top teeth & bottom lip. /v/ "vet" /w/ "wet" Minimal Pairs /w/ or /v/ practice

Voiceless. Friction. Tongue between teeth. /θ/ "thin"

Minimal Pairs /θ/ or /ð/ practice
Minimal Pairs /θ/ or /d/ practice
Minimal Pairs /θ/ or /t/ practice

Voiceless. Friction. Tongue between teeth. /θ/ "thin" /s/ "sin" Minimal Pairs /θ/ or /s/ practice

Voiceless. Friction. Tongue between teeth. /θ/ "thin" /t/ "tin" Minimal Pairs /θ/ or /ð/ practice
Minimal Pairs /θ/ or /t/ practice
Minimal Pairs /θ/ or /d/ practice
Minimal Pairs /θ/ or /s/ practice

Voiced. Friction. Tongue between teeth. /ð/ "they" /d/ "day"
Voiced. Friction. Tongue between teeth. /ð/ "clothe" /z/ "close" /z/
Voiced: tip of tongue behind top teeth. Friction. /z/ "rise" /s/ "rice" Minimal Pairs /s/ or /z/ practice

Quickly push air from throat out of mouth. /h/ "hot"
"ch" in "loch" Minimal Pairs /h/ or silent "h" practice

Sides of tongue to back teeth. Tip points up. /r/ "right" /l/ "light" Minimal Pairs /l/ or /r/ practice

Tongue touches hard palate. /l/ "light" (clear) /r/ "right" Minimal Pairs /l/ or /r/ practice

Contact. Brief "schwa" after release. /ɫ/ "tall" (dark l)


Tongue touches alveolar ridge. Nasal. /n/ "spoon" /ɫ/ "spool"
Voiced stop: back of tongue to back roof. /ŋ/ "thing" /ŋk/ "think" Minimal Pairs /ŋ/ or /ŋk/ practice

Unvoiced: Tip to alveolar. Front to palate. /ʧ/ "cherry"


Voiced: Tip to alveolar. Front to palate. /ʤ/ "wage"